Natural History

Welcome to the wonderful natural world of the Santa Fe Watershed. Below you will find listings for reptiles, amphibians, and common plants of the area.

A List of the Amphibians and Reptiles of the Santa Fe Area

Compiled by Ted Brown

Tiger Salamnder – Ambystoma tigrinum

Boreal Chorus Treefrog – Pseudacris maculata

Canyon Treefrog – Hyla arenicolor

Bullfrog – Rana catesbeiana

Northern Leopard Frog – Rana pipiens

Plains Spadefoot – Spea bombifrons

New Mexico Spadefoot – Spea multiplicata

Woodhouse’s Toad – Bufo woodhousii

Red-spotted Toad – Bufo punctatus

Box Turtle – Terrapene ornata

Lesser Earless Lizard – Holbrookia maculata

Round-tailed Horned Lizard – Phrynosoma modestum

Short-horned Lizard – Phrynosoma hernandesi

Collared Lizard – Crotaphytus collaris

Fence or Plateau Lizard – Sceloporus tristichus

Little Striped Whiptail – Aspidoscelis inornata

Plateau Striped Whiptail – Aspidoscelis velox

Many-lined Skink – Eumeces multivirgatus

Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnake – Crotalus atrox

Prairie Rattlesnake – Crotalus viridis

Western Hog-nosed Snake – Heterodon nasicus

Bullsnake – Pituophis catenifer

Great Plains Rat Snake – Elaphe emoryi

Wandering Garter Snake – Thamnophis elegans

Glossy Snake – Arizona elegans

Night Snake - Hypsiglena torquata

Milk Snake – Lampropeltis triangulum

Coachwhip – Masticophis flagellum

Mountain Patch-nosed Snake – Salvadora grahamiae

Smooth Green Snake – Opheodrys vernalis

Inventory of Plants observed in the Santa Fé River Canyon

Compiled by Roger Peterson, Viola Fisher, Bill Isaacs, Ann Parks,
Kent Williamson, Mark Wood

22 June, 2001

Numbers in the last column indicate months (e.g. 4 = April) in which flowering was observed. Introduced species that were probably planted in or near the canyon are marked “cultivated.” Introduced species that are abundant or likely to become bothersome are asterisked. Recently planted natives are marked “reintroduced”.

Trees, shrubs, woody vines

Acer negundo Box-elder native Aceraceae 4
Ailanthus altissima Tree-of-heaven cultivated* Simaroubaceae
Alnus tenuifolia alder native Betulaceae 4
Amelanchier alnifolia serviceberry reintroduced Rosaceae 6
Berberis repens Oregon grape native to NM Berberidaceae 4
Cercocarpus montanus mountain-mahogany reintroduced Rosaceae
Chrysothamnus nauseosus chamisa native Compositae 9
Clematis ligusticifolia clematis native Ranunculaceae 7-8
Cornus stolonifera red-osier dogwood reintroduced Cornaceae
Crataegus sp. hawthorn probably introduced Rosaceae
Elaeagnus angustifolia Russian olive introduced* Elaeagnaceae 5-6
Fallugia paradoxa Apache plume native Rosaceae 6
Forestiera neomexicana New Mexico olive reintroduced Oleaceae
Gutierrezia sarothrae broom snakeweed native Compositae 8-9
Jamesia americana waxflower native Hydrangeaceae 7
Juniperus monosperma one-seed juniper native Cupressaceae 3
Juniperus scopulorum Rocky Mountain juniper native Cupressaceae
Lonicera involucrata honeysuckle reintroduced Caprifoliaceae 5-6
Lonicera Xbella honeysuckle cultivated Caprifoliaceae 5-6
Lonicera morrowi honeysuckle cultivated Caprifoliaceae 5-6
Lycium pallidum wolfberry native Solanaceae 6
Malus sylvestris apple cultivated Rosaceae 5
Opuntia imbricata cholla native Cactaceae 7
Opuntia phaeacantha prickly pear native Cactaceae 7
Parthenocissus inserta woodbine native Vitaceae 6-7
Philadelphus microphyllus Mock orange native Saxifragaceae 6-7
Pinus edulis piñon native Pinaceae
Pinus ponderosa Ponderosa pine native Pinaceae
Populus Xacuminata lance-leaf cottonwood native Salicaceae 4
Populus alba white poplar cultivated Salicaceae
Populus angustifolia narrow-leaf cottonwood native Salicaceae 4
Populus wislizenii Rio Grande cottonwood native Salicaceae 4
Populus nigra var. italica Lombardy poplar cultivated Salicaceae
Prunus armeniaca apricot cultivated Rosaceae 4
Prunus sp. plum cultivated Rosaceae 5
Prunus americana wild plum native Rosaceae 5
Prunus virginiana choke cherry reintroduced Rosaceae 6-7
Pyrus communis pear cultivated Rosaceae
Quercus gambelii Gambel’s oak native Fagaceae
Rhamnus cathartica buckthorn, cascara cultivated Rhamnaceae 5-6
Ribes aureum golden currant native Grossulariaceae 4
Ribes cereum wax currant native Grossulariaceae 5
Robinia neomexicana New Mexico locust native to NM Leguminosae 5-6
Robinia pseudoacacia black locust introduced Leguminosae
Rosa multiflora multiflora rose cultivated Rosaceae 6-7
Rosa woodsii wild rose native Rosaceae 6-7
Salix babylonica weeping willow cultivated Salicaceae
Salix exigua coyote willow native Salicaceae 5-6
Salix irrorata bluestem willow native Salicaceae 4
Salix lucida subsp. lasiandra Pacific willow native Salicaceae 4-5
Salix nigra (var. vallicola?) black willow var. vallicola native NM Salicaceae
Symphoricarpos oreophilus? snowberry reintroduced Caprifoliaceae
Syringa vulgaris lilac planted Oleaceae 5
Tamarix chinensis tamarisk, salt cedar cultivated* Tamaricaceae 6
Ulmus americana American elm introduced Ulmaceae 4
Ulmus pumila Siberian elm introduced* Ulmaceae 3-4
Viburnum acerifolium arrowwood cultivated Caprifoliaceae 6-7
Agropyron cristatum crested wheatgrass introduced Gramineae 6-7
Agrostis stolonifera creeping bentgrass native Gramineae 7-9
Bouteloua barbata six-weeks grama native Gramineae 9-10
Bouteloua curtipendula side-oats grama native Gramineae 8-9
Bouteloua gracilis blue grama native Gramineae 9
Bouteloua simplex mat grama native Gramineae 8-9
Bromus inermis smooth brome introduced* Gramineae 5-6
Bromus japonicus Japanese brome introduced* Gramineae 7
Bromus tectorum cheatgrass introduced* Gramineae 4-7
Bromus sterilis [2d NM record] poverty brome introduced Gramineae 5-6
Carex douglasii dry-land sedge native Cyperaceae
Carex nebraskensis streamside sedge native Cyperaceae 5-6
Dactylis glomerata orchard-grass introduced* Gramineae 5-7
Eleocharis palustris spikerush native Cyperaceae 8-9
Elymus canadensis Canada wildrye native Gramineae 7-8
Elymus lanceolatus (E. dasystachys) wheatgrass native Gramineae 7
Elymus longifolius (Sitanion hystrix) squirreltail native Gramineae 6-7
Elymus pseudorepens false quackgrass native Gramineae 7-9
Elymus smithii western wheatgrass native Gramineae 6-8
Elymus trachycaulus slim wheatgrass native Gramineae 7-8
Eragrostis cilianensis stinkgrass introduced Gramineae 9
Festuca arundinacea tall fescue introduced Gramineae 5-6,9
Festuca idahoensis Idaho fescue native Gramineae 5-6
Hordeum jubatum foxtail barley introduced Gramineae 6-7
Juncus balticus wire rush native Juncaceae 6-7
Juncus bufonius toad rush native Juncaceae 8-10
Oryzopsis hymenoides rice grass native Gramineae
Oryzopsis micrantha littleseed rice grass native Gramineae
Phleum pratense timothy introduced Gramineae 7
Poa compressa Canada bluegrass introduced* Gramineae 6-10
Poa fendleri muttongrass native Gramineae 4-5
Poa interior bluegrass native Gramineae 5-6
Poa pratensis Kentucky bluegrass probably introduced* Gramineae 4-8
Scirpus pungens three-square; bulrush native Cyperaceae 9
Sporobolus cryptandrus sand dropseed native Gramineae 9
Stipa robusta sleepy-grass native Gramineae 7-9
Triticum aestivale wheat introduced Gramineae 7
Forbs
Allium cernuum wild onion native Liliaceae 6-7
Alyssum minus alyssum introduced Cruciferae 4
Amaranthus hybridus pigweed introduced Amaranthaceae 9
Ambrosia psilostachya western ragweed native Compositae 7-9
Aquilegia chrysantha yellow columbine native Ranunculaceae 6-7
Asclepias subverticillata poison milkweed native Asclepiadaceae 8
Asparagus officinale asparagus introduced Liliaceae 7
Aster lanceolatus western lined aster native Compositae 8-9
Bahia dissecta native Compositae 8-9
Calylophus serrulatus native Onagraceae 6-7
Camelina microcarpa false flax introduced Cruciferae 5-6
Cardaria draba whitetop introduced* Cruciferae 5-6
Castilleja integra paintbrush native Scrophulariaceae 6
Chenopodium album lamb’s-quarters introduced Chenopodiaceae 7-8
Chorispora tenella blue mustard introduced Cruciferae 4
Convolvulus arvensis field bindweed introduced* Convolvulaceae 7
Conyza canadensis horseweed native Compositae 7-10
Corydalis aurea golden smoke native Fumaririaceae 5-6
Cosmos parviflorus cosmos native Compositae 9-10
Croton texensis doveweed native Euphorbiaceae 7-8
Cucurbita foetidissima buffalo-gourd native Cucurbitatceae
Cynoglossum officinale hound’s tongue cultivated* Boraginaceae 7
Descurainia pinnata tansy-mustard native Cruciferae 4-5
Descurainia sophia flixweed introduced Cruciferae 5
Dracocephalum parviflora dragonhead native Labiatae 7
Epilobium ciliatum willow-herb native Onagraceae 9
Epipactis helleborine helleborine introduced Orchidaceae 7-8
Equisetum arvense horsetail, scouring rush native Equisitaceae 5-7
Equisetum hyemalis var. affine horsetail native Equisitaceae 5-7
Erigeron divergens fleabane daisy native Compositae 5-10
Erigeron flagellaris trailing fleabane native Compositae 7-9
Eriogonum jamesii wild buckwheat native Polygonaceae 7-9
Erodium cicutarium filaree, alfilaria introduced Geraniaceae 4-5
Euphorbia dentata spurge native Euphorbiaceae 9
Gaillardia pulchella Indian-blanket native Compositae 6
Gaura coccinea butterfly weed native Onagraceae 7-8
Gaura parviflora native Onagraceae 7-10
Geranium caespitosum geranium native Geraniaceae 6-9
Grindelia aphanactis gumweed native Compositae 7-10
Hemerocallis sp. day-lily cultivated Liliaceae 7-8
Heterotheca (Chrysopsis) villosa golden aster native Compositae 7-10
Hymenoxys richardsonii pingue, bitterweed native Compositae 7-8
Ipomopsis aggregata scarlet gilia native Polemoniaceae
Ipomoea hederacea wild morning glory native Convolvulaceae 9-10
Iris missouriensis wild iris native Iridaceae 5-6
Kochia scoparia greenmolly, starwort introduced* Chenopodiaceae 8-10
Lactuca serriola prickly lettuce introduced Compositae 9
Lappula redowskii stickseed native Cruciferae 4-6
Lathyrus eucosmos wild sweetpea native Leguminosae 5-7
Lathyrus latifolius sweetpea cultivated Leguminosae 8
Linaria dalmatica butter-and-eggs introduced* Scrophulariaceae 6-10
Linum lewisii blue flax native Linaceae 5
Lithospermum incisum puccoon, gromwell native Boraginaceae 5-6
Lupinus argenteus var. argophyllus lupine native to NM Leguminosae 6,8
Lupinus sp? lupine native to NM Leguminosae 6,8
Machaeranthera canescens blue aster native Compositae 7-10
Machaeranthera pinnatifida goldenweed native Compositae 7
Malva neglecta cheeseweed introduced Malvaceae 6
Malva sp. hollyhock cultivated Malvaceae 8
Marrubium vulgare horehound introduced* Labiatae 7-10
Medicago lupulina black medic introduced* Leguminosae 6-10
Medicago sativa alfalfa introduced* Leguminosae 6-10
Melilotus alba white sweet-clover introduced* Leguminosae 7-10
Melilotus officinalis yellow sweet-clover introduced* Leguminosae 6-10
Menodora scabra rough menodora native Oleaceae 7
Mentha spicata spearmint introduced Labiatae
Mirabilis linearis four-o’clock native Nyctaginaceae 7-8
Oenothera albicaulis prairie evening primrose native Onagraceae 7
Oenothera coronopifolia cut<-leaf evening primrose native Onagraceae 7-8
Oenothera hookeri Hooker’s eve. primrose native Onagraceae 7
Penstemon barbatus scarlet bugler native Scrophulariaceae 7-8
Penstemon strictus Rocky Mtn. penstemon native to NM Scrophulariaceae 6-7
Phlox sp. phlox cultivated Polemoniaceae 8
Phlox nana canyon phlox native Polemoniaceae 7-8
Phoradendron juniperinum mistletoe native; on juniper Viscaceae
Physalis hederaefolia/subulata ground-cherry native Solanaceae 6
Plantago major common plantain introduced Plantaginaceae 7
Polygonum aviculare knotweed native Polygonaceae 7-8
Portulaca oleracea purslane introduced Portulacaceae
Ratibida tagetes short-rayed coneflower native Compositae 7-10
Ratibida columnifera Prairie coneflower native Compositae 7-10
Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum watercress introduced Cruciferae 7
Rudbeckia laciniata cone flower native Cruciferae
Rumex crispus dock native Polygonaceae 6-7
Salvia reflexa Rocky Mountain sage native Labiatae 9-10
Schkuhria multiflora threadleaf native Compositae 9-10
Schorzonera laciniata false salsify introduced Compositae 5-8
Senecio butterweed native Compositae 6-9
Sisymbrium altissimum tumble-mustard introduced Cruciferae 5-8
Sonchus asper sow-thistle introduced* Compositae 7-10
Sphaeralcea fendleri globe mallow native Malvaceae 7-9
Taraxacum officinale dandelion introduced* Compositae 6-10
Thelesperma megapotamicum Navajo tea native Compositae 7-8
add Thermopsis, ck Agropyrons
Tragopogon dubius salsify; goatsbeard introduced* Compositae 5-10
Tragopogon porrifolius salsify, goatsbeard introduced Compositae 6
Tribulus terrestris goathead, puncture vine introduced Zygophyllaceae
Trifolium hybridum Alsike clover introduced Leguminosae 7
Trifolium repens white clover introduced Leguminosae 7
Typha sp. cat-tail native Typhaceae
Verbascum thapsus mullein introduced* Scrophulariaceae 7-10
Verbena bipinnatifida verbena native Verbenaceae 5-7
Verbena bracteata verbena native Verbenaceae 7
Verbena macdougali verbena native Verbenaceae 7-8
Veronica americana speedwell native Scrophulariaceae 6
Verbesina encelioides cow-pen daisy native Compositae
Xanthium strumarium cocklebur native Compositae
Yucca baccata banana yucca native Agavaceae
Yucca glauca soapweed yucca native Agavaceae

(c. 200 taxa, >100 of them native to New Mexico)